Characteristics of osteoarthritis of the hip joint: types and by what signs to recognize?

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is a disease of the musculoskeletal system of a progressive course and chronic in nature. Dystrophic changes begin in the cartilaginous tissue, which changes its structure, becomes loose, fibrous, thins and loses its function of amortization. As a result, the bone joints begin to rub against each other, motor activity is lost, and pain occurs. In the absence of treatment, a person is disabled.

Clinical picture and causes of osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint occupies a leading position among diseases of the musculoskeletal system and mainly affects the adult population after the age of 35 years. In the medical classifier, it was assigned the code M16 according to MBK 10.

The hip joint is the largest in the human body and supports the greatest load. It connects the bones to the pelvis and has a spherical appearance. The round head of the femur is inserted into the acetabular notch. Its surface is covered with cartilaginous tissue, which allows the bones to glide and performs cushioning functions, protecting the bones from friction, destruction, and providing a range of motion.

The mechanism of osteoarthritis is simple:

  1. The amount of synovial fluid decreases, so the joint washes worse and the supply of nutrients decreases.
  2. The structure of the joint is loosened. Due to friction, the cartilage becomes thinner, it stops relieving pressure on the bones.
  3. Growths (osteophytes) form along the edges of bone sites.
  4. Joint space is gradually reduced.
  5. The person experiences severe pain, movement problems, the limb is shortened and causes lameness.

Osteoarthritis of the hip can develop for a number of reasons, but most often it is caused by a combination of adverse circumstances. The disease is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, doctors do not find a reason for the development of the disease, in the second, arthrosis occurs due to certain pathologies.

specialized consultation in hip osteoarthritis

Main reasons:

  • trauma;
  • power loads, especially in the post-traumatic period, when the joint has not yet recovered;
  • over weight;
  • congenital abnormality of the femoral head (dysplasia);
  • inheritance;
  • arthritis (inflammation of the joints);
  • prolonged stress;
  • hormonal changes and diseases of the endocrine system;
  • infectious diseases.
obesity as a cause of osteoarthritis of the hip joint

Osteoarthritis can be unilateral, with damage to the right or left hip joint. Most often there is a two-sided option, when the pathological process affects both sides.

Symptoms and degrees of osteoarthritis.

The clinic of osteoarthritis directly depends on the stage of the disease. At first, a person begins to feel mild groin discomfort and morning leg stiffness, while soft tissue swelling and swelling does not occur. As the pathology develops, an acute period begins, which is characterized by severe pain.

On a note. When the first symptoms are found, you should consult a doctor and undergo an examination. Early disease responds well to treatment.

The main complaint of all patients is pain and limited mobility. Its severity depends on the dystrophic changes in the cartilage.

There are 3 degrees of the disease:

  1. At 1 degree, discomfort only arises after prolonged physical exertion (going uphill, running, cycling), which disappears on its own after rest. The muscles are in good shape, the movements are not limited. A narrowing of the joint space can be seen on the x-ray.
  2. At 2 degrees, the pain begins, transmitting to the groin area, spreading to the buttock and front of the thigh. There are "initial" pains when trying to get up or start walking, which disappear after 2-3 minutes. After prolonged exertion, the pain increases and disappears at rest. A symptom of osteoarthritis is a characteristic crunch in the joint, movements are limited (hip abduction), muscle strength decreases, with painful sensations, a spasm of smooth muscles occurs. On the X-ray, small osteophytes are seen, which are found along the edges of the bony areas of the joints. The femoral neck is thickened and widened, the joint space is significantly narrowed.
  3. At 3 degrees of the disease, the pain is permanent and does not subside even at rest. When walking, patients use improvised objects (cane, crutch). There is an atrophy of the muscle tissue of the thigh and lower leg, the limb is shortened; To get to the ground, the patient is forced to stand on the tips of the fingers. The X-ray image shows massive osteophytes, the femoral head is flattened, the joint space is practically invisible.

Some doctors also distinguish the fourth degree of the disease. Ossification of the joint and complete disability occurs in it, a person cannot move without the help of crutches. The degree of arthrosis is established on the basis of X-ray images, which help to clarify the etiology of the pathological process.

The following types of osteoarthritis are distinguished:

  • dysplastic: the slope of the acetabulum is determined;
  • post-traumatic: depends on the nature of the injury and the shape of the joint after bone fusion.

Childhood osteoarthritis

The causes of pathology in children are trauma, subluxation and dysplasia. Metabolic disorders can lead to the destruction of cartilage tissue.

The main symptom of the disease in children is pain syndrome after long games. As osteoarthritis develops, they become more intense and stronger. The child refuses to run, his appetite decreases, excessive crying appears. The second symptom is limited movement in the affected joint, leg numbness. Parents should pay attention to the characteristic creak. If the first symptoms are found, it is urgent to consult a doctor.

On a note. A child's body regenerates faster than that of an adult. Timely treatment will save the child from disability.

If the diagnosis is confirmed, the main goal is to improve the blood supply to the joint. For this, the doctor prescribes various physiotherapy procedures, exercise therapy, visits to sanatoriums, drugs.

a doctor examines a child with hip osteoarthritis

Prevention consists of proper nutrition. Particularly important are vitamins of group B, C, D. It is necessary to walk a lot in the fresh air, actively move and avoid traumatic situations.

Difference between osteoarthritis and other joint diseases.

Many patients, having heard the diagnosis of "osteoarthritis", confuse it with other diseases of the joints. Often the doctors in the medical history write down the "coxarthrosis". Consonant words confuse the patient.

Osteoarthritis is the general name for the pathological processes that cause the destruction of cartilage tissue. It usually disappears with joint deformity without infectious and inflammatory processes. It can affect the knee, elbow, shoulder, and other joints. Coxarthrosis is osteoarthritis of the hip joint, as indicated by the prefix "cox", which highlights a specific area.

What is the difference between sacroiliitis and osteoarthritis? In the first case, an inflammation of the sacroiliac joint occurs, which is characterized by pain in the sacrum when sitting. There is swelling in the vertebrae, pain in the buttocks. With osteoarthritis, thinning of the cartilage occurs, as a result of which the friction of the bones begins, causing pain.

Arthritis is an inflammatory process in joint tissue. The difference with osteoarthritis is that the latter is caused by mechanical movements that lead to abrasion of the cartilage. With arthritis, swelling and redness occurs in the joint region, the cause is infectious diseases or inflammatory processes within the body. The reactive stage of the disease almost always causes osteoarthritis. Pain sensations are similar, but with coxarthrosis they disappear at night and with arthritis they become stronger.

The clinical picture is similar. To correctly diagnose and exclude arthritis and sacroiliitis, doctors perform an analysis and a blood sample. An increased content of leukocytes and ESR indicates an inflammatory process in the body.


With osteoarthritis, long-term and complex treatment is necessary, which is based on drugs, physical therapy, exercise therapy and massage, while diet plays an important role. Proper nutrition is necessary both in the exacerbation stage and in remission. It must be balanced and contain all the essential vitamins. In addition, the diet promotes weight loss, which reduces stress on the joints.

Allowed Products:

  • vegetables and fruits;
  • lean meats;
  • crumbly porridge in the water;
  • dairy products;
  • bran bread;
  • a fish;
  • honey;
  • mushrooms;
  • walnuts.

The menu should include gelatin. On this basis, you can make various desserts from berries and fruits, as well as jellied meat. Eat cottage cheese, yogurt, and milk every day. It is better to replace chicken eggs with quail eggs. Boil, simmer or steam food. Eliminate fried and fatty foods. Give preference to vegetable oils. Drink at least 1. 5 clean water a day. The temperature of the food should not be too high or too low.

food for osteoarthritis of the hip joint

Avoid quick snacks, fast foods with sparkling sweet water. Exclude semi-finished products, sausages, conservation. He prefers natural products without added preservatives.

What is prohibited:

  • pickles;
  • smoked products;
  • white bread and baked goods;
  • hot spices
  • Garlic;
  • radish;
  • fatty meats;
  • Salo;
  • canned food;
  • Mayonnaise;
  • high-fat dairy products;
  • carbonated drinks;
  • alcohol.

Important. Food intake should be frequent, at least 5-6 times a day, 200 grams. Snacks are best made with your favorite fruits, you can drink a glass of kefir in the evening. The diet should not exceed 2000 kcal for women and 3000 kcal for men.

prohibited foods for hip osteoarthritis


Preventive measures consist of the timely elimination of the root causes of the disease and general strengthening measures.

To prevent the development of the disease, you must adhere to the following rules:

  1. To live an active lifestyle. Swimming, exercise without stress on the joint is recommended. Preventive methods include a bath and a sauna, which improve blood flow and flush out toxins.
  2. Follow a diet. This is necessary to provide the body with the necessary vitamins and accelerate metabolic processes.
  3. Avoid hypothermia. Low temperatures cause muscle cramps, which affect the blood supply to the joint.
  4. To minimize the possibility of trauma, especially with the development of coxarthrosis.

Subject to the rules, patient reviews were positive. They noted a decrease in pain, restoration of joint mobility, and an improvement in well-being.

gymnastics for hip osteoarthritis and joint pain

Coxarthrosis or osteoarthritis of the hip is a disease with a chronic course, phases of exacerbation and remission. Timely treatment allows you to stop the dystrophic process in cartilage tissue and maintain mobility of the legs. In the absence of therapy, a person is left disabled, and in this case, only surgery and joint replacement can restore the musculoskeletal system.